The phenomenon Tanguy , illustrated by the film of Stephen Chatiliez, describing the difficulty of young adults leaving the parental home, took an almost unprecedented scale in the United States. According to a study published Wednesday, November 11 by the Pew Research Center, using data from the Census Bureau, 36.4% of women aged 18 to 34 still live with their parents.
“We must go back seventy-four years ago to observe similar lifestyles among young Americans “ said Richard Fry, an economist at the Pew Research Center and author of the survey. The proportion of boys of this generation who have not yet left home is even more impressive with 42.6%. However, this level remains below the record of 47.5% set in 1940, from which the statistics began to be compiled.
The number of girls living at home had significantly declined over the years 1940 and 1950, falling to a low of 20%. The increase in the marriage rate and the increase of female participation in the labor market have contributed to this phenomenon. But at the turn of the 1960s, the curve has started to reverse to reach the summit today with a straightforward acceleration from 2000.
Almost one third of girls between now at University
The most notable change compared to America after the war is the ability to pursue studies. Thus, in the 1960s, American youth were only 5% to enter university. They are now 27%. But students are more likely to stay with their parents for lack of financial autonomy: in 2014, 45% of young women who have followed studies still lived in the family home, against 33% for those who had arrested them after high school. The decline of marriage and the increase in the average age at which people marry has also played for the Tanguy phenomenon. In 1940, 62% of women aged 18-34 years were married on average at 27 years. Today, they are no more than 21.5% to marry at an average age of 27 years.
The phenomenon is even more dramatic for boys. However, the 1940 record, when a boy of 18-34 years in two remained with his parents, was mainly due to economic factors. The generation of the unemployment rate was then 15%. She was the 2008 crisis played a role in the recent acceleration? Mr. Fry believes it can explain part of the problem, but part only, since the labor market has improved significantly since 2009, the 18-34 unemployment rate rising from 12.4 % to 7.7%. Despite the economic recovery, the number of young Americans who started a family, however, has stalled, while at the same time the population of 18-34 year olds has increased by 3 million since 2007.
Fees education that exploded
Again, the university plays a significant role. First, between 1990 and 2014, the number of students increased by 52%, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. That’s as many potential Tanguy. Then, at the same time educational rhymes more with loans. In thirty-five years, tuition fees of undergraduate ( college ) increased by 1120% which is twice as fast as the cost of health care or four times faster than the prices of power.
Today, the annual fees are tens of thousands of dollars, which must fulfill for three or four years in the best case (license or master level), not including the housing and the cost of daily living. Result: the generation of 18-34 years is a big contributor to the American student debt, now approaching 1200 billion
“This may have important implications for the resumption of. real estate market, while young adults do not feed the demand for housing, furniture and equipment that are purchased in a traditional installation “ said Mr. Fry. This did not prevent large cities like New York or San Francisco to experience a surge in rents, which again discourages leaving home.
Finally last element that can encourage young people to stay with their parents: the evolution of female participation rates. Between 1970 and 1990, the feminization of the labor market has been a powerful engine of growth in the working population. But since the 2000s, it stalled.
Thus, the United States, which occupied the sixth place in 1990 among OECD countries for its female participation rate in the labor market are now in seventeenth spot. According to Lawrence Kahn of Cornell University (New York), part of this decline is attributable to family policy, less generous than in other countries, including parental leave. Without work, a number of young women do not have the financial autonomy that would allow them to leave early the parental home.