The Independence Day is the American holiday celebrated on the occasion of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. July 4, 1776, representatives of thirteen colonies signed in establishing the Philadelphia City Council document proclaiming the United States independent of the British Empire.
It became obvious that the break with the metropolis was inevitable after the start in April 1775, the armed struggle for independence in North America (1775-1783). On June 7, 1776, during the meeting of the Continental Congress, Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee, proposed the resolution that “these United Colonies are of law, free and independent states, which are free from all allegiance to the Crown Columbia, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is and should be totally dissolved. ”
June 11, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert Livingston were elected to form the committee charged with preparing a special declaration to that effect. The drafting of the statement was given to the committee head, prominent actor of the War of Independence, Thomas Jefferson, who spent 17 days on its text (from June 11 to 28).
The proposed Jefferson, with minor editorial corrections by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, was presented June 28 at the Continental Congress. During the discussion, changes were made to the project, and the party condemning slavery and the slave trade has been dropped.
July 4, the unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America was approved unanimously, signed by the President of Congress John Hancock and Charles Thomson secretary and read aloud to the people gathered outside the Continental Congress.
This was the first document of history proclaiming the principle of popular sovereignty as the basis of the state, and disproving the prevailing theory at the time of the divine origin of power. The Declaration of Independence gave people the right to revolt and overthrow a despotic government, and proclaimed the fundamental ideas of democracy – equality of men, their “inalienable rights”, among which are “life, Liberty and the pursuit of happiness “.
This statement was not only the “birth” of a new state, but also a monument of American literature: Jefferson was able to express his ideas and principles in imaginative ways, succinct and accessible.
The signing ceremony of the declaration written on a scroll held August 2, 1776. The names of 56 people who signed the declaration came in American history, and many books and a memorial in Washington dedicated to them.
Among the 56 signers, five were captured and shot by the British as traitors. Nine people died of their wounds received during the Revolutionary War. Many have lost their wives, children and property. By irony of fate, two authors of this paper, which have subsequently Presidents of the United States, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams died the same day – July 4, 1826, exactly 50 years after the signing of the Declaration.
In 1870, Congress declared July 4 national holiday.
The original of the Declaration of Independence is considered an American national heritage and is preserved in the National Archives in Washington in an armored glass container filled with inert gas. During the day the Declaration was publicly exposed in the archive room, and overnight, the trunk is routed in a room protected underground.
According to tradition, the Independence Day of USA, visitors archives and tourists can see and hear the actors dressed in doublets and hats of the eighteenth century read the text of the Declaration.
The main event, the parade of Independence Day, takes place at noon in Washington. Meanwhile, popular festivities are organized across the country, and fireworks, and the Americans hang the national flag on their homes.
There are also some regional differences. For example, in the town of Seward (Alaska), we organized a march walking on top of Mount Marathon. Since 1818, the winter residents of the town of Lititz (Pennsylvania) manufacture of candles: July 4, a festival of candles is organized in the city. In the town of Tecumseh (Nebraska), the court building are hung with hundreds of flags in honor of soldiers from the town who served in the U.S. Army.
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